By Vladimir Grechka
The ebook is designed for geophysicists who are looking to improve their figuring out of the subsurface and find out about smooth concepts for extracting additional info from seismic data.
Table of Content
List of Figures
List of Tables
1. Definitions and examples
2. aircraft waves
3. Rays and traveltimes
4. Thomsen parameters
5. common moveout
6. Nonhyperbolic moveout
7. Anistropy estimation from VSP data
8. Fracture characterization
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Extra info for Applications of seismic anisotropy in the oil and gas industry
I) either the group- velocity vector, g, of a body wave to point towards the corresponding half-space so that the body wave propagates away from the interface, (ii) or the appropriate sign of Im (p3) to ensure an exponential decrease of energy of the evanescent wave into the desired half-space. 4 illustrates the previous paragraph. It depicts the cross-sections of the slowness surfaces by the local [pinc, b]- plane. 16 for reflected (upper half-space) and transmitted (lower halfspace) waves. The black arrows indicate the group- velocity vectors g satisfying radiation condition (i).
The explicit form of the Bond matrix can be found in Auld (second edition, 1990, p. 74) and Carcione (2001, p. 8). 30 that numerical values of components of tensor c′ generally differ from those of c and depend on the directions of coordinate axes x′ with respect to x. For example, a component cijkl = 0 in the coordinate frame x might become nonzero in a different frame x′ If c possesses certain types of structures, it might happen that some rotation matrices R do not alter its elements. Then, tensor c is said 26 to be symmetric with respect to those transformations or to belong to a certain symmetry class.
Likewise, the diagonal stiffnesses c44, c55, and c66 in the lower-right block, which relate shear strains and stresses, can be equal to zero only in fluids and not in solids. 28 is different. They relate the normal stresses to shear strains and vice versa. 3b. As we know from our everyday experience, this does not happen in isotropic media, therefore, those stiffness coefficients have to be equal to zero for isotropy. Finally, the off-diagonal elements c45, c46 and c56 in the lower-right block relate the shear stress components τI (I = 4, 5, 6) to different shear strain components εJ (J = 4, 5, 6; J ≠ I).