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By Olga Livshin

In the course of the past due Soviet interval, many educators, scientists and newshounds believed that
traditional gender roles and norms had replaced, generating bodily or ethically vulnerable males and correspondingly robust ladies. the subsequent research follows the representations of this shift between Soviet nonconformist poets, writers and playwrights within the Nineteen Sixties, Seventies and Eighties.
Social scientists have argued that those perceived adjustments have been defined of their time as
the results of demographic imbalance of guys to girls or the deterioration of men‘s our bodies because of difficulties corresponding to alcoholism. by contrast, this learn exhibits that during nonconformist literature, the overdue Soviet gender predicament was once a response to the Stalinist unitary version of the ―steeled‖ guy, as expressed in tradition and artwork. Authors articulated substitute types of masculinity as a part of a bigger critique of Soviet, essentially Stalinist, civilization.
This dissertation analyzes the prose works of Venedikt Erofeev and Yuz Aleshkovsky,
the poetry of Genrikh Sapgir and Nina Iskrenko, and the prose and performs of Lyudmila
Petrushevskaya. How did those authors build male weak point and feminine power –
physically, mentally, spiritually, or as a mix of all 3 features? Did they decry these
changes or did they valorize them as choices to the Stalinist legacy of ―steeled‖ males? Did the authors position the accountability for the perceived emasculation of the Soviet guy at the nation or at the guy himself?

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Additional resources for Alternative Masculinities in Late Soviet Nonconformist Literature, 1958-1991

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Thus, a paradox exists at the core of this study. Although authors search for alternative masculinities, they do not attempt to find a model by which to live. In this way, another strong trend in the work under discussion emerges: its negativism. Late Soviet authors create a recurring antithesis of the masculinity of ―tempered steel‖: the most common male persona in their works is a weak, often alcoholic, sometimes impotent man. In contrast to the salutary nature of non-literary alternative masculinities, such as mountain-climbing, alternative masculinity in late Soviet nonconformist literature is a negative of the Stalin‘s model, and it is deliberately somber.

70 Frances K. Barasch, ―The Grotesque as a Comic Genre,‖ Modern Language Studies 1(1985), p. 4. , p. 6. 72 On Bakhtin‘s function of the body in carnival, see Mikhail Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World, trans. Hélène Iswolsky (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1968), p. 19 and passim. 69 56 ―Icarus‖ juxtaposes several narratives—from ancient Greece, Stalin‘s time, and the Thaw. Sapgir‘s Icarus is a composite creature in a literal as well as metaphorical sense: he is part sculpture, part machine, part man. The splicing of several narratives concerning the nexus between men and technology is postmodern in the sense outlined by Linda Hutcheon.

Mir sovetskogo cheloveka (Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2001), pp. 31-32. 54 Olga Berggolts, ―Razgovor o lirike,‖ Literaturnaia gazeta, 16 April, 1953, p. 3. 55 In Yevtushenko‘s poetry of the 1950s and 1960s, the ―I‖ of the poet confesses repeatedly to marital infidelity. ],‖ in Evgenii Aleksandrovich Evtushenko, Medlennaia liubov’ (Moscow: Eksmo, 1997), p. 304. ‖ Yevtushenko‘s readers would recognize these features in particular because they knew he was married to Akhmadulina at the time.

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