By The African Development Bank
The ebook of the African improvement file 2008/2009 comes at a time while a few lengthy civil conflicts in Africa have ended whereas a few international locations proceed to event violent clash or the specter of its prevalence. The termination of a few of the long-drawn-out conflicts deals hopes for lasting peace and safety in Africa, a sine qua non for the continent to boost. however it additionally increases a few demanding situations to make sure a profitable post-conflict transition. The international locations involved aren't able to adopt such efforts all alone. therefore, exterior aid is essential to post-conflict restoration. however, the endurance of clash in another international locations warrants a persevered enquiry into the character and factors of clash in Africa and a look for acceptable conflict-resolution suggestions. in contrast historical past, the file investigates the character, motives and results of clash in Africa. It assesses conflict-resolution and peacebuilding ideas after which specializes in regulations to assist the transition from clash to peace and financial restoration. eventually, it highlights the African improvement Bank's aid to fragile states, that are more often than not international locations rising from clash. The record identifies huge wisdom gaps and an absence of consensus at the reasons of clash in Africa. It indicates that the results of clash frequently unfold way past nationwide borders, and that nearby and overseas efforts are serious to clash solution. The file emphasizes the necessity for robust nationwide associations to underpin the method of nation construction regularly, and peacebuilding and monetary restoration particularly. The file contributes to the talk on powerful techniques to avoid and finish conflicts in Africa, and facilitate post-conflict restoration and reconstruction. it's a must-read for policymakers, practitioners and students, and certainly for all people with an in curiosity in African improvement.
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Extra info for African Development Report 2008 2009
Competition for scarce resources Competition for scarce resources, particularly land, sometimes leads to violent conﬂict. Land has considerable socio- Explaining violent conflict economic, political and symbolic value in African societies. It is a source of rural livelihoods and provides access to natural resources. The origins of the economic crisis in Zimbabwe can be traced, at least in part, to attempts by the government to redistribute land. Uvin (1998) blames the conﬂict in Rwanda, in part, on competition for scarce land resources.
Beyond these aggregate numbers, the question is: who is killed in military operations? Murray et al (2002) examine the age and sex distribution of battle deaths. According to their data, men aged 15 –29 are most likely to be killed, but women make up nearly a quarter of all battle deaths. Their estimates also suggest that battle deaths are almost equally split between military and civilian fatalities. 1 presents data on battle deaths and total war deaths for some African wars. The percentage of battle deaths in total deaths is generally low, ranging from about 3 percent to 30 percent.
The post-independence regimes largely perpetuated the colonial system of ethnic determinism and marginalization, a key factor of the recurrence of conﬂict. Although the two countries have achieved peace today, their ability to sustain it hinges on the ability of national leadership to design and effectively implement a national development strategy that creates opportunities for all by integrating all aspects of society. It is by making economic and political marginalization a thing of the past that the two countries can overcome the legacy of recurrent conﬂict.