By Susan Welch
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Extra resources for Affirmative Action and Minority Enrollments in Medical and Law Schools
The university admitted that it was receiving federal financial assistance. With little examination of the applicability of the terms of Title VI to the special admissions program, Stevens concluded that Bakke was excluded from the medical school on the basis of his race. Stevens also criticized the opinions of the remaining five justices for addressing the issue of race as a positive factor in admissions. Stevens considered these statements dicta. Yet Stevens himself seemed to address this issue implicitly.
These items, then, showed more consensus between the races than the question specifically on Bakke did, but these items, of course, were not affected by the reaction of various groups to the Bakke ruling. In fact, opinion on affirmative action is extremely difficult to measure and probably very changeable (see Sniderman and Piazza 1993). Varying the wording-adding or deleting words like quotas, reverse discrimination, or qualified in the questions-leads to large differences in the responses. Apparently in hearing the 171-word question specifically on Bakke, whites must have paid more attention to the news about quotas, while blacks may have paid more attention to the characterization that Bakke was a victim of reverse discrimination.
By contrast, about twothirds of Hispanic children have both parents at home; only 28 percent live in families headed by women. A third reason for declining black and Hispanic family income is the overall state of the American economy. After gains throughout the post- 42 Affirmative Action and Minority Enrollments $$ 50 Whites Blacks Hispanics • Married couple IGFemale headed Fig. 3. Average family income by family type and ethnicity. (Data from Statistical Abstract 1995. Table 727. ) World War II era, in 1973, when oil prices skyrocketed, the economy slumped badly.