By I. G. Craig, N. W. Nash, G. A. Oldfield (auth.), C. P. Ellinas (eds.)
Dr C P Ellinas complex Mechanics & Engineering Ltd significant advances were completed lately in subsea pipeline layout and set up. Inspection, upkeep and service have additionally bought a lot recognition. the advance of marginal fields has introduced with it precise difficulties, that have necessitated novel equipment and strategies. in the intervening time curiosity within the improvement of deepwater fields maintains with the advance of latest know-how. This convention has put emphasis in addressing advancements in pipeline know-how below 4 major headings: pipeline/seabed interplay; versatile pipelines; pipeline layout, fabrication and deploy; deepwater functions. Advances in North Sea know-how during the last few years were involved usually with marginal fields, small diameter pipelines and new fabrics, that are good coated within the first 3 issues. monetary improvement of marginal fields calls for processing of oil and gasoline to occur no longer on the wellhead yet at present amenities, often far away. Hydrocarbons are hence usually transported at excessive strain and temperature in small diameter pipelines, which must be safe via trenching. even though, such operational perform has delivered to the fore an issue that previously was once of little predicament specifically, upheaval buckling.
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Extra info for Advances in Subsea Pipeline Engineering and Technology: Papers presented at Aspect ’90, a conference organized by the Society for Underwater Technology and held in Aberdeen, Scotland, May 30–31, 1990
To debury the same, probably live, pipeline would re,quire removing the 2 metre cover and an additional 1 metre the diameter of the pipeline. 5 metres. In mobile sand such as that common in Southern North Sea areas the stable angle of repose of the soil is about 15 degrees at best and 7 degrees at worst. 5 metre deep trench in this soil with a 15 degree angle of repose requires a trench width of 26 metres At an angle of 7 degrees the trench width increases to over 60 metres, about the width of a motorway.
20 ADVANCES IN SUBSEA PIPELINE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Therefore, provided there is regular inspection of the flowline, retrospective action can be taken before the buckle has developed to the extent where pipe wall overstressing and crimping is likely to be a problem. If a buckle does develop, installation of weight stabilisation over the buckle length, to overcome the uplifting force and the loss of fr~ctional resistance over the suspended length of pipe, should be sufficient to prevent further movement.
The earliest pipeline burials were carried out in the mobile sand and shell soils of the shallow Southern North Sea. Any visitor to the Southern Sector in the late sixties and early seventies will recall the familiar pipelay barge followed several miles later by the unmistakable profile of a jet barge with its'pipe burying "claw" These units, when towed along the pipe, blasted huge volumes of high pressure water below and to the sides of the pipe and disgorged fluidised sand through large airlifts either side of the pipe.