By Chris Dawson, Hugh Whitfield
Urological difficulties surround a variety of either distressing and in all likelihood lifestyles threatening stipulations and the variety of common perform displays is starting to be speedily as a result of the expanding age of the inhabitants. either trustworthy and accomplished, the second one version of the ABC of Urology offers a completely up to date and revised consultant to the speciality which highlights the hot advances during this zone. Concentrating particularly at the therapy and prognosis of the most typical stipulations, the emphasis is on shared care, the place the talents of the first care staff are utilized in conjunction with health center referral.
This concise, well-illustrated and hugely useful textual content will give you the excellent reference for common practitioners and perform nurses, in addition to junior medical professionals dealing with clinic referrals
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Alternatively, retrograde placement of a ureteric stent can be done in theatre. In ill patients, nephrostomy drainage is preferable. The cause of obstruction can be dealt with at a later date, when the sepsis has resolved and the patient is well again. 24 Most cases of upper urinary tract infection are caused by Gram negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli. qxd 7/7/06 4:46 PM Page 25 7 Prostate cancer Chris Dawson Percentage of change Epidemiology Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United Kingdom and accounts for 20% of cancers in men overall but only 13% of deaths from cancer in men.
This may show a classic papillary tumour (fronded and like seaweed) or a tumour that is more broad based (sessile) and less papillary and solid looking, which may be invasive. ABC of Urology Second Edition Edited by Chris Dawson and Hugh N Whitfield © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. qxd 6/7/06 9:13 PM Page 30 ABC of urology Transitional cell cancer stages: G1—well differentiated (left), G2—moderately differentiated (centre), and G3—poorly differentiated (right) Specimens of urine will be taken for culture and cytology, and imaging of the urinary tract will be arranged.
Similarly, the amount of prostate specific antigen bound to protein (complexed prostate specific antigen) can be measured. Complexed prostate specific antigen is more stable in extracted blood samples and may give more reliable results than levels of free prostate specific antigen. 5 ABC of Urology Second Edition Edited by Chris Dawson and Hugh N Whitfield © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN: 978-1-405-13959-5 Localised disease Options: Active surveillance Radical prostatectomy External beam radiotherapy Brachytherapy Locally advanced Options: Radiotherapy with or without hormone therapy Metastatic Options: Active surveillance if small metastases Hormone therapy Diagnosis and management of prostate cancer Counselling patients who request a prostate specific antigen test ● ● ● ● ● Although the test for prostate specific antigen itself is innocuous, the consequences of an increased level of prostate specific antigen may be more considerable A level of prostate specific antigen higher than the age specific reference range requires a transrectal ultrasound and biopsy of the prostate, as long as no contraindications exist The biopsy procedure has known complications of haematuria, haemospermia, and rectal bleeding.