By Robert Carlson
The sequence builds an in depth selection of top of the range descriptions of languages world wide. every one quantity bargains a complete grammatical description of a unmarried language including absolutely analyzed pattern texts and, if acceptable, a glossary and different proper info that's to be had at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language relations or region, and even supposing detailed cognizance is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and worthwhile remedies of higher identified languages also are incorporated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the single criterion is a excessive average of medical caliber.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Supyire
But when stressed IM precedes /a/, both vowels are drawn to each other to produce [ee], as in the following examples. Note that this change is not written in the orthography. (54) Mpi ä jwo... hare PERF say... ' [ηιρβέ] U jiye ä si ä? 3. Neutralization Secondary release induces some variation in certain following vowels. The contrast between Id and /a/ is neutralized after secondary release, though there is some variation in the behavior of individual roots and speakers. Some speakers favor one or the other pronunciation, some use both, and some use a vowel somewhere in between.
Examples with /p/ are: [ρΦϋΟΪ] cf. puni all [P un i] pworo adobe [ρφ^Γο] cf. better [ρφλν3Γθ] cf. G3P [bßw2Ri:] cf. big [bu:qg] cf. boro sack [boro] cf. G3P [b5ri:] Between a labial fricative and a high back vowel, secondary release sounds simply like extra friction. This is simply symbolized here with [w]: (27) fwuu yam [f^u:] cf. fuu burst [fu:] fwoo debt [fwo:] cf. foo owner [fo:] cf. starling With the palatal stops, which are phonetically affricates, secondary release before front vowels is realized as extra length and friction on the [J] or , 24 Chapter 2: Phonology symbolized here simply as [:].
Vowels (71) Ku it 39 Ku kan cedga ä. ' kan cedgi ά. DEF to Cedgi ä kare ä kwo. DEF PERF go SC finish Cedqa a kära a kwd. ' U pye ä she NEG PERF Upye a kärä έηά ä? ' kare anf ä? Q As shown here, most vowel-initial clitics begin with /a/. 6 below. The vowels of third person anaphoric pronouns are unstressed, and most of these assimilate as expected (exceptions will be dealt with in the next section): (72) Ku it(G2S) ä ßwo. PERF good => Ka äßwo. ' Li it(G3S) ä β wo. PERF good La ä β wo. 5. Approximant formation When three of the eight anaphoric pronouns precede a vowel-initial clitic, they do not allow the assimilation of their vowels as described above.